Finally, changes in design protection can also have an impact on employment. Both the European Manufacturers’ Association and national industry associations warn very clearly of such consequences. For example, the French manufacturers’ association CCFA sees possible effects on employment in France and Europe through the introduction of a repair clause at European level. French manufacturers produce 90 percent of body parts such as bonnets and fenders in Europe. A production volume of several million units is achieved. The European association ACEA speaks of around 50,000 jobs that could be threatened by a repair clause introduced throughout Europe. With the abolition of design protection, Southeast Asian companies, for example, which produce exclusively for the aftermarket, could legally produce replica parts of dubious quality. In contrast to manufacturers, these companies have of course not invested in the development of the parts in question.